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You may fire .308 through a rifle designed and built around 7.62 X 54, but you may not fire a 7.62 X 54 round through a rifle designed for .308. Is my understanding of not-always-so-clear internet research correct?
 

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.308 in a 7.62 X 51, I think.... and not the other way around.
 

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You may fire .308 through a rifle designed and built around 7.62 X 54, but you may not fire a 7.62 X 54 round through a rifle designed for .308. Is my understanding of not-always-so-clear internet research correct?
The 7.62x54R is a rimmed round somewhat similar to a .30-06.

The .308 or 7.62x51 is a much more modern round, rimless, and shorter than the Russian round, and has higher pressure.

Since the pressure of the NATO/.308is ABOUT 8000 PSI HIGHER than the Russian rounds, I would have doubts about firing in a Moisin converted from the 54R round.
The bolt face would be different, head space different, and other issues. MOST of the Moisins, especially the wartime models were built just to barely meet minimum specifications. They emphasized QUANTITY far over QUALITY. There would be no practical reason to convert a 7.62x51 to 7.62x54R.

7.62x54R
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7.62×54mmR

Case typeRimmed, Bottleneck
Bullet diameter7.92 mm (0.312 in)
Neck diameter8.53 mm (0.336 in)
Shoulder diameter11.61 mm (0.457 in)
Base diameter12.37 mm (0.487 in)
Rim diameter14.40 mm (0.567 in)
Rim thickness1.6 mm (0.063 in)
Case length53.72 mm (2.115 in)
Overall length77.16 mm (3.038 in)
Case capacity4.16 cm[SUP]3[/SUP] (64.2 gr H[SUB]2[/SUB]O)
Rifling twist240 mm (1 in 9.45 in)
Primer typeBerdan or Boxer Large Rifle
Maximum pressure360 MPa (52,000 psi)

800px-76254Rvariety.jpg


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7.62x51 Nato or .308 Winchester
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7.62×51mm_NATO


NOTE higher pressure (below) than the 52,000 PSI of the Russian round above

Parent case.308 Winchester (derived from the .300 Savage)
Case typeRimless, Bottleneck
Bullet diameter0.308 in (7.82 mm)
Neck diameter0.345 in (8.8 mm)
Shoulder diameter0.454 in (11.5 mm)
Base diameter0.470 in (11.9 mm)
Rim diameter0.473 in (12.0 mm)
Rim thickness0.050 in (1.3 mm)
Case length2.015 in (51.2 mm)
Overall length2.750 in (69.9 mm)
Rifling twist1 in 12 in (30 cm)
Primer typeLarge Rifle
Maximum pressure60,191 psi (415.00 MPa)

NATO_7.62x51.jpg
 

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.308 bullet is just that, ..308. 7.62X54R is .311-.312. Don't try to use The Russian bullet in a gun made for .308
 
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